At school, they teach to write and read, count and find the necessary information. On the Internet, they teach the same thing, but with the help of hypertext.

Have you ever read an article on Wikipedia about a person, come across a link, click on it, and there you have it, information about a historical event? And then you plunged headfirst into a note about a natural phenomenon. How did it happen? It's all about one of the most important inventions that gave us the development of the Internet.

Що таке гіпертекст, навіщо він потрібен?

What is hypertext?

Hypertext is a system consisting of text elements connected to each other by links. The entire Internet consists of such systems — texts made with the help of a markup language and intended for transition between them by links. Simply put, hypertext is something that links to other pages.

Now we will show you the simplest example.

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Atomom hypertextcontains a hyperlink - a prepared text or graphic image that contains, explicitly or implicitly, a link to another object on the Internet. After clicking on it, the user automatically goes to the document: it opens in the current or new browser window.

According to the form of submission, such hyperlinks are distinguished as:

  • text that is underlined and/or highlighted in a color different from the main one;
  • graphical: icons, buttons, etc.

According to their location on the resource, they are divided into:

  • local links (local), which refer to other fragments or elements of the same document from which they lead;
  • global links, which refer to any resources located outside the current document.

According to the object of orientation, they are:

  • different pages;
  • fragments of the same page;
  • multimedia;
  • address e-mail and postal service;
  • script script.

Where did hypertext come to us?

When comparing electronic textual content to paper books, references are insertions and quotations from reference books, encyclopedias, and fiction publications. With the development of information technology, people started looking for a way to do the same digitally.

The first person to do this was the American Theodore Holm Nelson, who was born in 1937 and is still engaged in information technology research.

Теодор Холм Нельсон

Nelson is the creator of the Xanadu hypertext system

The term "hypertext" was first coined in his report "Complex Information Processing: A File Structure for the Complex, the Changing, and the Indeterminate" in 1965.

In his paper, Nelson presented it as a combination of textual and graphic content that has complex relationships and contains footnotes, insets, annotations, and various additions. Although almost 60 (!) years have passed since that time, the essence of the concept has not changed and the entire Internet is based on it.

Why do you need hypertext?

In short, to make it convenient to work with the text and to provide quick and easy access.

  1. Ease of use. With its help, you can achieve a highly understandable structure of any type of content on the page, connect it with others and ensure relevance material
  2. Simplicity of representation. Ease of reading for users is provided, which is positively evaluated by search engines.
  3. Adding media content. It is about integration into the text of video clips, audio tracks and images (photos, drawings, diagrams, etc.). They provide the necessary variety that allows it to remain useful and interesting for readers.
  4. Ease of obtaining the necessary data. Sometimes, to learn about something, you just need to hover over the highlighted fragment.

The main characteristics of hypertext

  1. Non-linearity. There is no physical connection between the pages, so there is no need to link them linearly. Thanks to this, each of them becomes autonomous: users can get acquainted with them in any sequence.
  2. Variability. In hypertext, you can organically connect textual content directly, add audio, video and graphics. At the same time, it will not become a "Frankenstein", but will have the appearance of a semantic and logical unit of information.
  3. Lack of hierarchy. This aspect arises from non-linearity. With the help of technology, users can get to know the texts in different ways: complete reading, familiarization with selected sections or individual fragments, watching only the video and even going beyond it: for example, when working with comments on articles.
  4. Expanding text boundaries. It is organized by the connections of the searched document with the rest. This breaks the usual pattern of reading, creates clip-likeness. At the same time, this approach provides situations when a person can read dozens of others within the framework of familiarization with one text.
  5. Fragmentation. The text is a monolith, but consists of elements that may well be independent units and be of interest to users by themselves: for example, all the pictures in the article are, in fact, a gallery of images. Thanks to fragmentation, you can abandon a purely linear perception.
  6. Infinity. The boundaries are defined by the readership. People themselves determine at what point in time they stop traveling through links, when they receive the necessary information or cannot extract it in any way and go to other pages.
  7. Interactivity. The user can get to know it through reading, viewing, listening, making changes and communicating with other users.

How hypertext works

Structurally, hypertext is a language document HTML. Content can be divided into basic information (text, graphics, video, audio, etc.) and origin hypertext markup.

Basic HTML tags are usually paired and look like this:

<tag> some information </tag>

  • <p>one<p> — selection of paragraphs;
  • <h2> two </h2> — selection of second-level headings;
  • <li> three</li> — item of the marked list;
  • <th> four </th> - denotes the table cell header;
  • <title> five <title> is the title of the HTML document.

Their pairs — the opening and closing tags — are also called containers with elements linked between them.

They are also single:

  • <img> — для вбудовування зображень;
  • <br> — для перенесення тексту на новий рядок;
  • <blockquote> — для citation fragments

Normal text on the web consists of letters linked into words, sentences and paragraphs + punctuation marks.

Гіпертекст відрізняється від звичайного ще й тим, що передбачає коректне використання при опублікуванні символів <(менше) та >(більше), лапок-лапок “”, амперсанда &. Ці символи входять до синтаксису майже всіх мов програмування. Якщо їх додати в текст у режимі візуального перегляду, а не редагування, можлива поява чужорідних фрагментів:

That's all. Write good texts, follow verified links.